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  • “Speaking or writing effectively, beautifully, fluently, and appropriately.”1)
  • Balagah (rhetoric) and ‘bulugh’ (maturation) come from the same root. The following three elements are significant in rhetoric: words, meaning, and composition. Composition means to realize insijam (coherence), which means establishing a bond between concepts by choosing the most appropriate words and meanings considering the subject, situation, and addressee, and stringing them like pearls, and to ensure the continuity of sense or the flow of meaning by building a solid channel between minds and hearts. Coherence means that the ideas in a literary composition establish a logical unity with each other and form an orderly whole.”2)
  • “The most important element of rhetoric is composition, not just words or meanings. It is the composition that holds the material (syntactic) and the spiritual (semantic) elements together and reinforces them. Composition is like a luminous column or a transparent but solid frame. Words and meanings stand with this invisible, magnificent, and elegant structure, connect to each other and form a pattern. In this respect, composition is like the patterns of the Divine Destiny that regulate creation.”3)
  • Rhetoric means conveying the intended meaning in the most concise way and without any confusion. Speaking in accordance with the situation and taking into account the disposition of the interlocutor are among the leading conditions of rhetoric.”4)
  • “Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, is unequalled in that he appeared as a sword of valor and eloquence against unbelief and savagery. He proclaimed the truth with the clearest voice and showed humankind the ways to true existence.”5)
  • “Another example is the repetition of the stories of the Prophets, particularly that of Moses, upon him be peace. Such stories contain many instances of wisdom and benefit. The Qur’an shows the Prophethood of all previous Prophets as an evidence of Muhammad’s Messengership, upon him be peace and blessings. This means that from the point of view of truth, no-one can deny Muhammad’s Messengership unless one denies all the other Prophets. Also, since not everyone can recite the whole of Qur’an every time they open it, it includes those stories, together with the essentials of belief, in almost all the long and mediumlength suras (chapters), thus making each one like a miniature Qur’an. This is done because it is demanded by the principles of literary eloquence and also because the Qur’an wishes to show that Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, is the most important of people and the noblest phenomenon in the cosmos.”6)
  • “Friday sermons are to remind people of Islam’s essentials, not to expound upon its abstract theoretical points. Given this, the Arabic phrases expressing those essentials are the best suited for this reminding. When Qur’anic verses are compared even with the Prophet’s sayings, it will be noticed that even the most eloquent one of humankind cannot compete with the Qur’an’s eloquence.”7)
  • “Especially today, those who shoulder the duty of tabligh (communicating the Divine message) and irshad (guidance), which is actually a duty of the Prophets in the past, should pay close attention to this point and be very sensitive about it. Because the influence of the speech lies not in its rhetoric or eloquence, but in its sincerity. This requires expecting nothing in return and performing something just for the sake of God.”8)
  • “It is imperative that the excitement of rhetoric should have a close relation with sincerity so that it is not temporary. The influence of Bediüzzaman's works is also related to this requirement. Just like the huge waves of the great oceans… In fact, people can only benefit from it by admitting that it is so to some extent; otherwise it is not possible to have any benefit.”9)
  • “… literature does not simply mean playing on words with written or spoken language skills and producing phrases people will like; it means making the art of expression lovable with the dimensions of eloquence and clarity. It is the water and air of feeding, adorning, and enriching daily language with the cleanest, purest, most lovable, and lasting material, and it is a treasure which increases with use.”10)

See Also

Other Languages


Yusuf Bayram, “Belâgat ve Mantık”, Çağlayan, June 2022.
M. Fethullah Gülen, Kur’ân’ın Altın İkliminde, İstanbul: Nil Yayınları, 2010, p. 58.
M. Fethullah Gülen, Pearls of Wisdom, New Jersey: Tughra Books, 2013, p. 7.
Bediüzzaman Said Nursi, The Words, New Jersey: The Light, 2013, p. 475–476.
Bediüzzaman Said Nursi, The Letters, New Jersey: The Light, 2014, p. 458.
M. Fethullah Gülen, Sonsuz Nur, İstanbul: Nil Yayınları, 2008, p. 94.
M. Fethullah Gülen, Fasıldan Fasıla-1, İstanbul: Nil Yayınları, 2008, p. 252.
M. Fethullah Gülen, Speech and Power of Expression, New Jersey: Tughra Books, 2010, p. 14.
rhetoric.txt · Last modified: 2022/08/18 16:24 by Editor